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County-Scale Distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Continental United States

Rebecca J. Eisen, Lars Eisen, Charles B. Beard
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjv237 tjv237 First published online: 18 January 2016

Figures

  • Fig. 1.

    Distribution by county of recorded presence of I. scapularis and I. pacificus in the continental United States (a) 1907–1996 (from Dennis et al. 1998), (b) 1907–2015. Counties classified as established (red or green) for a given tick species had at least six ticks or two life stages recorded within a single calendar year. Counties with fewer ticks of a single life stage were classified as reported (blue or yellow) for the tick species. Counties shown in white indicate“no records.”

  • Fig. 2.

    Changes in county status for I. scapularis and I. pacificus from December 1996 (Dennis et al. 1998) to August 2015 (our data). Black or gray color indicates that county status already was established (black) or reported (gray) for I. scapularis or I. pacificus by Dennis et al. (1998) and considered to be the same in this study. Red or orange color indicates that the status of a county changed from no records to established (red) or from reported to established (orange). Green color indicates that the status of a county changed from no records to reported.

Tables

  • Table 1.

    Number (%) of continental United States counties in which I. scapularis or I. pacificus were classified as reported or established, by December 1996 (from Dennis et al. 1998) and August 2015

    Species/StateNo. (%) counties with reported statusNo. (%) counties with established status
    By 1996By 2015By 1996By 2015
    I. scapularis556  (17.8)578  (18.6)396  (12.7)842  (27.1)
    Alabama20  (29.9)21  (31.3)25  (37.3)25  (37.3)
    Arkansas37  (49.3)25  (33.3)9  (12.0)27  (36.0)
    Connecticut0  (0)0  (0)8  (100)8  (100)
    Delaware0  (0)0  (0)3  (100)3  (100)
    Florida22  (32.8)15  (22.4)35  (52.2)52  (77.6)
    Georgia31  (19.5)35  (22.0)23  (14.5)35  (22.0)
    Illinois47  (46.1)29  (28.4)4  (3.9)35  (34.3)
    Indiana25  (27.2)37  (40.2)8  (8.7)29  (31.5)
    Iowa17  (17.2)25  (25.3)7  (7.1)14  (14.1)
    Kansas14  (13.3)14  (13.3)1  (1.0)1  (1.0)
    Kentucky2  (1.7)4  (3.3)0  (0)14  (11.7)
    Louisiana12  (18.8)23  (36.0)12  (18.8)12  (18.8)
    Maine3  (18.8)0  (0)13  (81.3)16  (100)
    Maryland2  (8.3)2  (8.7)21  (87.5)21  (91.3)
    Massachusetts3  (21.4)0  (0)9  (64.3)14  (100)
    Michigan22  (26.5)16  (19.3)5  (6.0)24  (28.9)
    Minnesota12  (13.8)3  (3.5)9  (10.3)45  (51.7)
    Mississippi72  (87.8)71  (86.6)10  (12.2)11  (13.4)
    Missouri8  (7.0)8  (7.0)21  (18.3)23  (20.0)
    Nebraska0  (0)3  (3.2)0  (0)0  (0)
    New Hampshire5  (50.0)1  (10.0)5  (50.0)9  (90.0)
    New Jersey0  (0)0  (0)21  (100)21  (100)
    New York20  (32.3)1  (1.6)31  (50.0)61  (98.4)
    North Carolina23  (23.0)16  (16.0)7  (7)43  (43.0)
    North Dakota0  (0)3  (5.7)0  (0)5  (9.4)
    Ohio5  (5.7)31  (35.6)0  (0)33  (37.5)
    Oklahoma36  (46.8)36  (46.8)3  (4.0)3  (4.0)
    Pennsylvania26  (38.8)0  (0)23  (34.3)67  (100)
    Rhode Island0  (0)0  (0)5  (100)5  (100)
    South Carolina14  (30.4)19  (41.3)13  (28.3)14  (30.4)
    South Dakota2  (3.0)2  (3.0)2  (3.0)0  (0)
    Tennessee6  (6.3)27  (28.4)1  (1.1)16  (16.8)
    Texas39  (15.4)45  (17.7)24  (9.5)26  (10.2)
    Vermont6  (43.0)2  (14.3)1  (7.1)11  (78.6)
    Virginia4  (3.0)29  (21.6)8  (6.0)43  (32.1)
    West Virginia2  (3.6)20  (36.4)2  (3.6)23  (41.8)
    Wisconsin16  (22.2)15  (20.8)29  (40.3)51  (70.8)
    I. pacificus16  (0.5)16  (0.5)90  (2.9)95  (3.1)
    Arizona1  (6.7)1  (6.7)0  (0)0  (0)
    California1  (1.72)1  (1.72)55  (94.8)55  (94.8)
    Nevada2  (11.8)2  (11.8)0  (0)0  (0)
    Oregon4  (11.1)4  (11.1)18  (50.0)18  (50.0)
    Utah4  (13.8)3  (10.3)4  (13.8)4  (13.8)
    Washington5  (12.8)6  (15.3)12  (30.8)16  (41.3)
  • Table 2.

    Status for I. scapularis by continental United States county. Fields left blank indicate that status was inherited from Dennis et al. (1998)

    State and countyStatus by August 2015aStatus change from Dennis et al. (1998)bSource for change of status from Dennis et al. (1998) survey
    Alabama
     AutaugaEstablished
     BaldwinReported
     BarbourEstablished
     BibbEstablished
     BullockEstablished
     ButlerEstablished
     ChambersEstablished
     ChiltonReported
     ChoctawEstablished
     ClarkeEstablished
     ClayReported
     CleburneReported
     CoffeeReportedN-Rhttp://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/vectormap/
     ColbertEstablished
     ConecuhEstablished
     CoosaEstablished
     CovingtonEstablished
     CrenshawReported
     DaleReported
     ElmoreEstablished
     EscambiaEstablished
     FranklinEstablished
     GenevaReported
     HaleEstablished
     HenryEstablished
     HoustonReported
     JacksonEstablished
     JeffersonReported
     LawrenceReported
     LeeEstablished
     LowndesReported
     MadisonReported
     MarengoReported
     MobileEstablished
     MonroeEstablished
     MontgomeryReported
     PickensEstablished
     RandolphReported
     RussellEstablished
     SumterReported
     TalladegaReported
     TallapoosaEstablished
     TuscaloosaReported
     WashingtonReported
     WilcoxReported
     WinstonEstablished
    Arkansas
     AshleyEstablished
     BaxterEstablished
     BentonEstablishedR-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     BooneEstablishedR-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     CalhounReported
     CarrollReported
     ClarkEstablishedN-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     CleburneEstablishedN-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     ColumbiaReported
     ConwayReported
     CrawfordEstablishedR-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     DallasReported
     DrewReported
     FaulknerEstablishedN-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     FranklinEstablished
     FultonEstablishedR-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     GarlandEstablishedR-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     GrantEstablishedR-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     HempsteadEstablishedN-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     HowardReported
     IzardReported
     JeffersonReported
     JohnsonReported
     LafayetteReported
     LawrenceEstablishedR-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     LincolnReported
     LoganReported
     MadisonEstablished
     MarionEstablishedR-E(McAllister et al. 2013)
     MontgomeryReported
     NevadaReported
     NewtonReported
     OuachitaReported
     PerryReported
     PikeReported
     PoinsettEstablishedN-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     PolkEstablished
     PopeEstablishedR-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     PrairieEstablishedR-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     PulaskiReported
     RandolphReported
     SalineEstablishedN-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     ScottReported
     SearcyEstablished
     SebastianEstablished
     SevierEstablishedR-E(Trout and Steelman 2010)
     SharpReported
     StoneEstablished
     UnionEstablishedR-E(Trout and Steelman 2010, McAllister et al. 2013)
     Van BurenReported
     WashingtonEstablished
     YellReported
    Connecticut
     FairfieldEstablished
     HartfordEstablished
     LitchfieldEstablished
     MiddlesexEstablished
     New HavenEstablished
     New LondonEstablished
     TollandEstablished
     WindhamEstablished
    Delaware
     KentEstablished
     New CastleEstablished
     SussexEstablished
    District of ColumbiaEstablishedN-ET. L. Johnson, unpublished
    Florida
     AlachuaEstablished
     BakerEstablished
     BayEstablished
     BradfordReported
     BrevardEstablishedN-EJ. Corn/SCWDS, unpublished; J. Mertins/NVSL, unpublished
     BrevardReported
     BrowardReported
     CalhounEstablished
     CharlotteReported
     CitrusReported
     ClayEstablished
     CollierEstablished
     ColumbiaEstablished
     DeSotoEstablishedN-EJ. Corn/SCWDS, unpublished; J. Mertins/NVSL, unpublished
     DixieEstablished
     DuvalReported
     EscambiaEstablished
     FlaglerEstablished
     FranklinEstablished
     GadsdenEstablished
     GilchristReportedN-RK. Sayler, unpublished
     GladesEstablished
     GulfEstablished
     HamiltonEstablishedR-EJ. Corn/SCWDS, unpublished; J. Mertins/NVSL, unpublished
     HardeeReported
     HendryEstablishedR-EJ. Corn/SCWDS, unpublished; J. Mertins/NVSL, unpublished
     HernandoEstablished
     HighlandsEstablishedR-EJ. Corn/SCWDS, unpublished; J. Mertins/NVSL, unpublished
     HillsboroughEstablishedR-EJ. Corn/SCWDS, unpublished; J. Mertins/NVSL, unpublished
     HolmesReportedN-RJ. Corn/SCWDS, unpublished; J. Mertins/NVSL, unpublished
     Indian RiverEstablishedN-EC. Lord, unpublished
     JacksonEstablished
     JeffersonEstablished
     LafayetteEstablished
     LakeEstablishedR-EJ. Corn/SCWDS, unpublished; J. Mertins/NVSL, unpublished
     LeeEstablishedR-EJ. Corn/SCWDS, unpublished; J. Mertins/NVSL, unpublished
     LeonEstablished
     LevyEstablishedR-EK. Sayler, unpublished
     LibertyEstablished
     MadisonEstablishedN-EK. Sayler, unpublished
     ManateeReported
     MarionEstablished
     MartinEstablished
     Miami-DadeEstablished
     MonroeEstablishedR-EJ. Corn/SCWDS, unpublished; J. Mertins/NVSL, unpublished
     NassauEstablished
     OkaloosaEstablished
     OkeechobeeEstablishedN-EWisely, Cleveland, Satterlee, and Lord, unpublished
     OrangeEstablished
     OsceolaEstablished
     Palm BeachEstablished
     PascoReported
     PinellasEstablishedN-EJ. Corn/SCWDS, unpublished; J. Mertins/NVSL, unpublished
     PolkEstablished
     PutnamEstablishedR-EJ. Corn/SCWDS, unpublished; J. Mertins/NVSL, unpublished
     Santa RosaEstablished
     SarasotaEstablishedR-EJ. Corn/SCWDS, unpublished; J. Mertins/NVSL, unpublished
     SeminoleEstablishedR-EJ. Corn/SCWDS, unpublished; J. Mertins/NVSL, unpublished
     St. JohnsReported
     St. LucieReportedN-RL. Durden, unpublished
     SumterEstablished
     SuwanneeReportedN-RL. Durden, unpublished
     TaylorEstablished
     UnionReported
     VolusiaEstablished
     WakullaEstablished
     WaltonEstablished
     WashingtonReportedN-RJ. Corn/SCWDS, unpublished; J. Mertins/NVSL, unpublished
    Georgia
     ApplingReportedN-RL. Durden, unpublished
     AtkinsonReported
     BaconReportedN-RL. Durden, unpublished
     BakerReported
     BaldwinReported
     BibbReported
     BleckleyEstablished
     BrantleyEstablished
     BrooksReported
     BryanReported
     BullochEstablished
     BurkeEstablishedR-EL. Durden, unpublished
     CalhounReported
     CamdenReported
     CandlerEstablishedN-EL. Durden, unpublished
     CharltonEstablished
     ChathamEstablished
     ChattahoocheeReported
     ClarkeReportedN-RL. Durden, unpublished
     ClinchEstablished
     CoffeeReported
     ColumbiaReported
     CookReported
     CrispReported
     DecaturReported
     DoughertyEstablished
     EcholsReported
     EffinghamEstablished
     EmanuelEstablishedN-EL. Durden, unpublished
     EvansEstablishedR-EL. Durden, unpublished
     ForsythReportedN-RL. Durden, unpublished
     GlynnEstablished
     GradyEstablished
     HancockReported
     HoustonEstablished
     IrwinEstablished
     JasperEstablished
     Jeff DavisReported
     JeffersonEstablishedN-EL. Durden, unpublished
     JenkinsEstablishedN-EL. Durden, unpublished
     JohnsonEstablishedN-EL. Durden, unpublished
     JonesReported
     LaurensEstablishedN-EL. Durden, unpublished
     LibertyEstablished
     LongReported
     LowndesEstablished
     McDuffieEstablished
     McIntoshEstablished
     MonroeEstablished
     MontgomeryEstablishedN-EL. Durden, unpublished
     MorganReported
     MuscogeeReported
     PierceReported
     PulaskiReported
     PutnamEstablished
     TalbotEstablished
     TaliaferroReported
     TattnallReportedN-RL. Durden, unpublished
     TelfairEstablished
     TerrellReported
     ThomasEstablished
     TiftReportedN-RL. Durden, unpublished
     ToombsEstablishedN-EL. Durden, unpublished
     TreutlenEstablishedN-EL. Durden, unpublished
     TwiggsReported
     WareEstablished
     WashingtonEstablishedN-EL. Durden, unpublished
     WayneReported
     WilkesReported
     WilkinsonReported
    Illinois
     BooneReported
     BrownReported
     BureauEstablishedR-E(Cortinas and Kitron 2006)
     CarrollEstablished
     CassReportedN-R(Cortinas and Kitron 2006)
     ChampaignEstablishedR-Ehttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/ Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     ClarkEstablishedR-Ehttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/ Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     ColesEstablishedR-Ehttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf /Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     CookEstablishedR-E(Rydzewski et al. 2012); http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     CrawfordReported
     CumberlandReported
     De WittEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     DuPageEstablishedR-E(Rydzewski et al. 2012); http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     EdgarReported
     FayetteReported
     FranklinReported
     FultonEstablishedN-E(Cortinas et al. 2002)); (Cortinas and Kitron 2006); http:// www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     GallatinReported
     GrundyEstablishedR-E(Cortinas and Kitron 2006); http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     HenryEstablishedR-Ehttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/ Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     IroquoisReported
     JacksonReported
     Jo DaviessEstablishedR-Ehttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/ Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     KankakeeEstablishedR-E(Cortinas and Kitron 2006); http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     KnoxReported
     LakeEstablishedN-E(Rydzewski et al. 2012); http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     LaSalleEstablishedR-E(Cortinas and Kitron 2006); http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     LawrenceReported
     LeeEstablishedR-Ehttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/ Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     MacoupinEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/ Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     MadisonReported
     MarshallEstablishedR-E(Cortinas and Kitron 2006); http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     MasonEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/ Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     McDonoughEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/ Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     McHenryReported
     McLeanEstablishedR-Ehttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/ Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     MenardReported
     MercerReported
     MonroeEstablished
     MontgomeryReportedN-Rhttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/ Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     MorganReportedN-R(Cortinas and Kitron 2006)
     OgleEstablished
     PeoriaEstablishedR-E(Cortinas and Kitron 2006); http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     PerryReported
     PiattEstablishedR-E(Rydzewski et al. 2011); http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     PopeReported
     PutnamEstablishedR-E(Cortinas and Kitron 2006); http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     RandolphReported
     Rock IslandEstablished
     SalineReported
     SangamonReported
     SchuylerEstablishedR-E(Cortinas and Kitron 2006)
     ScottReported
     ShelbyEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/ Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     St. ClairReported
     StephensonReported
     TazewellEstablishedR-E(Cortinas et al. 2002, Cortinas and Kitron 2006); http:// www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     UnionReported
     VermilionEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/ Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     WabashEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/ Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     WillEstablishedR-E(Cortinas and Kitron 2006); http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     WilliamsonReported
     WinnebagoEstablishedR-Ehttp://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/ Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
     WoodfordEstablishedN-E(Cortinas and Kitron 2006); http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pdf/Deer_Tick_Range.pdf
    Indiana
     AdamsReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     BartholomewEstablishedR-ER. Pinger, unpublished
     BentonReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     BooneReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     BrownReported
     CarrollReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     CassEstablishedR-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     ClarkReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     ClayEstablishedR-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     DaviessReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     DearbornReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     DuboisEstablishedR-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     ElkhartReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     FountainReported
     FranklinEstablishedR-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     FultonEstablishedR-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     GrantReported
     GreeneReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     HamiltonReportedN-R(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     HendricksReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     HowardReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     HuntingtonReported
     JasperEstablished
     JeffersonEstablishedN-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     JenningsEstablishedN-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     JohnsonReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     KnoxReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     KosciuskoEstablishedN-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     LaGrangeReported
     LakeEstablishedR-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     LaPorteEstablished
     LawrenceReportedN-R
     MadisonReported
     MarshallReported
     MartinEstablishedN-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     MonroeEstablishedN-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     MontgomeryEstablishedN-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished d
     MorganEstablishedR-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     NewtonEstablished
     OrangeReported
     OwenEstablishedN-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     ParkeEstablishedR-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     PikeReported
     PorterEstablished
     PoseyReported
     PulaskiEstablished
     PutnamEstablishedN-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     RandolphReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     RipleyReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     ShelbyReportedN-R(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     St. JosephEstablishedR-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     StarkeEstablished
     SteubenReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     SullivanEstablishedN-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     SwitzerlandReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     TippecanoeEstablishedR-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     UnionReportedN-R(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     VanderburghReportedN-RR. Pinger, unpublished
     VermillionReported
     VigoEstablished
     WabashReported
     WarrenEstablishedN-E(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
     WarrickReported
     WashingtonReported
     WhiteEstablished
     WhitleyReportedN-R(Raizman et al. 2012); E. Raizman, unpublished
    Iowa
     BentonReportedN-R(Lingren et al. 2005)
     BremerEstablished
     Buena VistaReported
     CalhounReportedN-R(Lingren et al. 2005)
     CedarReportedN-R(Lingren et al. 2005)
     Cerro GordoEstablished
     ClaytonReported
     ClintonReportedN-R(Lingren et al. 2005)
     CrawfordReportedN-R(Lingren et al. 2005)
     DallasReported
     DelawareReported
     Des MoinesEstablished
     DubuqueReported
     FayetteReported
     FloydReported
     GreeneReportedN-R(Lingren et al. 2005)
     GuthrieReportedN-R(Lingren et al. 2005)
     HancockReportedN-R(Lingren et al. 2005)
     IowaReported
     JacksonEstablished
     JasperReportedN-R(Lingren et al. 2005)
     JohnsonEstablishedR-E(Lingren et al. 2005)
     KeokukEstablishedN-E(Lingren et al. 2005)
     KossuthReportedN-R(Lingren et al. 2005)
     LinnEstablished
     LouisaReported
     MarshallReported
     MuscatineEstablished
     Palo AltoReportedN-R(Lingren et al. 2005)
     PolkEstablishedR-E(Lingren et al. 2005)
     ScottEstablishedR-E(Lingren et al. 2005)
     StoryEstablishedR-E(Lingren et al. 2005)
     TamaReportedN-R(Lingren et al. 2005)
     WashingtonReportedN-R(Lingren et al. 2005)
     WebsterEstablishedR-E(Lingren et al. 2005)
     WinnebagoReported
     WinneshiekEstablishedR-E(Lingren et al. 2005)
     WoodburyReportedN-R(Lingren et al. 2005)
    Kansas
     BourbonReported
     ChautauquaReported
     CherokeeReported
     CoffeyReported
     CowleyReported
     CrawfordReported
     DouglasEstablished
     JeffersonReported
     JohnsonReported
     LabetteReported
     LinnReported
     MiamiReported
     MontgomeryReported
     RileyReported
     ShawneeReported
    Kentucky
     BallardReported
     BooneEstablishedN-EL. Townsend, unpublished
     CarrollEstablishedN-EL. Townsend, unpublished
     ChristianReported
     ClayEstablishedN-EL. Townsend, unpublished
     EstillEstablishedN-EL. Townsend, unpublished
     FayetteEstablishedN-EL. Townsend, unpublished
     HancockReportedN-RL. Townsend, unpublished
     HardinEstablishedN-EL. Townsend, unpublished
     JacksonEstablishedN-EL. Townsend, unpublished
     KnoxEstablishedN-EL. Townsend, unpublished
     LeeEstablishedN-EL. Townsend, unpublished
     McCrearyEstablishedN-EL. Townsend, unpublished
     MeadeEstablishedN-EB. Pagac and M. Miller, unpublished
     OwsleyEstablishedN-EL. Townsend, unpublished
     PulaskiEstablishedN-EL. Townsend, unpublished
     TrimbleEstablishedN-EL. Townsend, unpublished
     WarrenReportedN-R(Onwu 2012)
    Louisiana
     AllenEstablished
     AvoyellesEstablished
     BienvilleEstablished
     BossierReported
     CaldwellEstablished
     CatahoulaReportedN-R(Mackay and Foil 2005)
     ClaiborneReported
     ConcordiaEstablished
     De SotoReportedN-R(Mackay and Foil 2005)
     East Baton RougeReported
     East CarrollReportedN-R(Mackay and Foil 2005)
     GrantEstablished
     JacksonEstablished
     Jefferson DavisReportedN-R(Mackay and Foil 2005)
     LafayetteReportedN-R(Mackay and Foil 2005)
     LincolnEstablished
     MadisonReported
     MorehouseEstablished
     NatchitochesEstablished
     OuachitaReported
     Pointe CoupeeReportedN-R(Mackay and Foil 2005)
     RapidesReported
     SabineReported
     St. John the BaptistReportedN-R(Mackay and Foil 2005)
     St. LandryReported
     St. MartinReportedN-R(Mackay and Foil 2005)
     St. MaryReportedN-R(Mackay and Foil 2005)
     St. TammanyReported
     TangipahoaReported
     TensasReported
     UnionEstablished
     VermilionReportedN-R(Mackay and Foil 2005)
     VernonEstablished
     WashingtonReportedN-R(Mackay and Foil 2005)
     WinnReported
    Maine
     AndroscogginEstablished
     AroostookEstablishedR-Ehttp://www.maine.gov/dhhs/mecdc/infectious-disease/epi/vector-borne/lyme/documents/2014-lyme-legislature.pdf
     CumberlandEstablished
     FranklinEstablishedR-Ehttp://www.maine.gov/dhhs/mecdc/infectious-disease/epi/vector-borne/lyme/documents/2014-lyme-legislature.pdf
     HancockEstablished
     KennebecEstablished
     KnoxEstablished
     LincolnEstablished
     OxfordEstablished
     PenobscotEstablished
     PiscataquisEstablishedR-Ehttp://www.maine.gov/dhhs/mecdc/infectious-disease/epi/vector-borne/lyme/documents/2014-lyme-legislature.pdf
     SagadahocEstablished
     SomersetEstablished
     WaldoEstablished
     WashingtonEstablished
     YorkEstablished
    Maryland
     AlleganyReported
     Anne ArundelEstablished
     Baltimore City
     BaltimoreEstablished
     CalvertEstablished
     CarolineEstablished
     CarrollEstablished
     CecilEstablished
     CharlesEstablished
     DorchesterEstablished
     FrederickEstablished
     GarrettReported
     HarfordEstablished
     HowardEstablished
     KentEstablished
     MontgomeryEstablished
     Prince George'sEstablished
     Queen Anne'sEstablished
     SomersetEstablished
     St. Mary'sEstablished
     TalbotEstablished
     WashingtonEstablished
     WicomicoEstablished
     WorcesterEstablished
    Massachusetts
     BarnstableEstablished
     BerkshireEstablishedR-Ehttp://stats.tickdiseases.org/
     BristolEstablished
     DukesEstablished
     EssexEstablished
     FranklinEstablished
     HampdenEstablished
     HampshireEstablished
     MiddlesexEstablishedR-Ehttp://stats.tickdiseases.org/
     NantucketEstablished
     NorfolkEstablishedN-Ehttp://stats.tickdiseases.org/
     PlymouthEstablished
     SuffolkEstablishedN-Ehttp://stats.tickdiseases.org/
     WorcesterEstablishedR-Ehttp://stats.tickdiseases.org/
    Michigan
     AlgerReportedN-R(Schaar 2012)
     AlleganEstablishedR-E(Foster 2004, Hamer et al. 2010)
     BaragaReported
     BarryEstablishedN-EJ. Tsao, S. Hamer, I. Arsnoe, and G. Hickling, unpublished
     BenzieEstablishedN-E(Hamer et al. 2010); J. Sidge unpublished
     BerrienEstablished
     CassEstablishedN-E(Hamer et al. 2009); E. Foster, unpublished
     CharlevoixEstablishedN-EE. Foster and J. Sidge, unpublished
     ChippewaEstablished
     ClintonReported
     DeltaEstablished
     DickinsonEstablishedR-EI. Arsnoe, unpublished
     EmmetReportedN-RJ. Sidge, unpublished
     GeneseeReported
     GogebicEstablished
     HillsdaleReportedN-RE. Foster, and J. Tsao, unpublished
     HoughtonReported
     InghamEstablishedR-EE. Foster, and J. Tsao, unpublished
     IoniaEstablishedN-E(Hamer et al. 2010)
     IronReportedN-R(Walker et al. 1998)
     JacksonReported
     KalamazooEstablishedN-EJ. Tsao and G. Hickling, unpublished
     KentReported
     LapeerReported
     LeelanauEstablishedR-EE. Foster, J. Tsao and J. Sidge, unpublished
     LivingstonReported
     MackinacReported
     ManisteeEstablishedR-E(Hamer et al. 2010)
     MarquetteReported
     MasonEstablishedN-EJ. Tsao and J. Sidge, unpublished
     MenomineeEstablished
     MidlandReported
     MuskegonEstablishedR-E(Hamer et al. 2009, Hamer et al. 2010)
     OaklandReported
     OceanaEstablishedR-EJ. Tsao, and J. Sidge, unpublished
     OntonagonEstablishedR-EE. Foster, unpublished
     OttawaEstablishedR-E(Hamer et al. 2009); E. Foster, unpublished
     SchoolcraftEstablishedR-EI. Arsnoe, unpublished
     St. JosephEstablishedN-EJ. Tsao and E. Foster, unpublished
     Van BurenEstablishedN-E(Foster 2004, Hamer et al. 2009, Hamer et al. 2014)
    Minnesota
     AitkinEstablishedR-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     AnokaEstablished
     BeckerEstablishedN-E(Sanders and Guilfoile 2000), D. Neitzel, unpublished
     BeltramiEstablishedR-E(Sanders and Guilfoile 2000), D. Neitzel, unpublished
     BentonEstablishedN-ET. Johnson and D. Neitzel, unpublished
     BrownReportedN-RD. Neitzel, unpublished
     CarltonEstablishedR-E(Sanders and Guilfoile 2000), D. Neitzel, unpublished
     CarverEstablished
     CassEstablishedN-E(Sanders and Guilfoile 2000)
     ChisagoEstablished
     ClearwaterEstablishedN-E(Sanders and Guilfoile 2000), D. Neitzel, unpublished
     CookEstablishedN-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     Crow WingEstablishedR-E
     DakotaEstablished
     DouglasEstablishedR-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     FillmoreEstablishedN-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     GoodhueEstablishedN-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     HennepinEstablishedN-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     HoustonEstablishedR-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     HubbardEstablishedN-E(Sanders and Guilfoile 2000), D. Neitzel, unpublished
     IsantiEstablishedR-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     ItascaEstablishedN-E(Sanders and Guilfoile 2000)
     KanabecEstablishedR-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     KandiyohiEstablishedN-E(Diuk-Wasser et al. 2006); D. Neitzel, unpublished
     KoochichingEstablishedN-E(Sanders and Guilfoile 2000)
     LakeEstablishedN-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     Lake of the WoodsEstablishedN-E(Sanders and Guilfoile 2000), D. Neitzel, unpublished
     MahnomenEstablishedN-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     Mille LacsEstablishedR-E(Sanders and Guilfoile 2000)
     MorrisonEstablished
     NicolletReportedN-RT. Johnson and D. Neitzel, unpublished
     OlmstedEstablishedR-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     Otter TailEstablishedN-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     PineEstablished
     PopeEstablishedN-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     RamseyEstablished
     RiceReportedN-RT. Johnson and D. Neitzel, unpublished
     ScottEstablished
     SherburneEstablishedN-E(Diuk-Wasser et al. 2006), D. Neitzel, unpublished
     SibleyEstablishedN-ET. Johnson and D. Neitzel, unpublished
     St. LouisEstablishedN-E(Sanders and Guilfoile 2000), D. Neitzel, unpublished
     StearnsEstablishedN-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     ToddEstablishedR-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     WabashaEstablishedN-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     WadenaEstablishedN-E(Sanders and Guilfoile 2000), D. Neitzel, unpublished
     WashingtonEstablished
     WinonaEstablishedR-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
     WrightEstablishedN-ED. Neitzel, unpublished
    Mississippi
     AdamsReported
     AlcornReported
     AmiteReported
     AttalaReported
     BentonReported
     BolivarEstablished
     CalhounReported
     CarrollReported
     ChickasawReported
     ChoctawReported
     ClaiborneReported
     ClarkeReported
     ClayReported
     CoahomaReported
     CopiahEstablished
     CovingtonReported
     DeSotoReported
     ForrestReported
     FranklinReported
     GeorgeReported
     GreeneReported
     GrenadaReported
     HancockReported
     HarrisonReported
     HindsEstablished
     HolmesReported
     HumphreysReported
     IssaquenaReported
     ItawambaReported
     JacksonEstablished
     JasperReported
     JeffersonReported
     Jefferson DavisReported
     JonesReported
     KemperReported
     LafayetteReported
     LamarReported
     LauderdaleReported
     LawrenceReported
     LeakeReported
     LeeReported
     LefloreReported
     LincolnReported
     LowndesReported
     MadisonReported
     MarionReported
     MarshallEstablishedR-E(Goltz and Goddard 2013, Goltz et al. 2013)
     MonroeReported
     MontgomeryReported
     NeshobaReported
     NewtonReported
     NoxubeeEstablished
     OktibbehaEstablished
     PanolaReported
     Pearl RiverReported
     PerryEstablished
     PikeReported
     PontotocReported
     PrentissReported
     QuitmanReported
     RankinEstablished
     ScottEstablished
     SharkeyReported
     SimpsonReported
     SmithReported
     StoneReported
     SunflowerReported
     TallahatchieReported
     TateReported
     TippahReported
     TishomingoReported
     TunicaReported
     UnionReported
     WalthallReported
     WarrenReported
     WashingtonReported
     WayneReported
     WebsterReported
     WilkinsonReported
     WinstonEstablished
     YalobushaReported
     YazooReported
    Missouri
     AdairEstablishedN-ES. Fore and H.-J. Kim, unpublished
     BentonEstablished
     BollingerEstablished
     BooneReported
     CallawayEstablished
     Cape GirardeauEstablishedR-E(Kollars et al. 1997, Kollars et al. 1999)
     ClarkReported
     DallasEstablished
     DentEstablished
     DouglasEstablished
     GasconadeEstablished
     GreeneEstablished
     HowellEstablished
     JasperEstablished
     JohnsonEstablished
     LacledeEstablished
     MontgomeryReported
     New MadridReported
     NewtonReportedN-Rhttp://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/vectormap/
     OsageEstablished
     PulaskiEstablished
     ScottReported
     St. CharlesEstablished
     St. ClairReported
     St. LouisReported
     StoddardEstablished
     StoneEstablished
     TaneyEstablished
     TexasEstablished
     WayneEstablished
     WebsterEstablished
    Nebraska
     CassReportedN-R(Cortinas and Spomer 2014)
     LancasterReportedN-R(Cortinas and Spomer 2014)
     PawneeReportedN-R(Cortinas and Spomer 2014)
    New Hampshire
     BelknapEstablishedR-Ehttp://www.dhhs.nh.gov/dphs/cdcs/lyme/documents/tick-borne-bulletin-2014.pdf
     CarrollEstablishedR-Ehttp://www.dhhs.nh.gov/dphs/cdcs/lyme/documents/tick-borne-bulletin-2014.pdf
     CheshireEstablishedR-Ehttp://www.dhhs.nh.gov/dphs/cdcs/lyme/documents/tick-borne-bulletin-2014.pdf
     CoosReported
     GraftonEstablished
     HillsboroughEstablished
     MerrimackEstablished
     RockinghamEstablished
     StraffordEstablished
     SullivanEstablishedR-Ehttp://www.dhhs.nh.gov/dphs/cdcs/lyme/documents/tick-borne-bulletin-2014.pdf
    New Jersey
     AtlanticEstablished
     BergenEstablished
     BurlingtonEstablished
     CamdenEstablished
     Cape MayEstablished
     CumberlandEstablished
     EssexEstablished
     GloucesterEstablished
     HudsonEstablished
     HunterdonEstablished
     MercerEstablished
     MiddlesexEstablished
     MonmouthEstablished
     MorrisEstablished
     OceanEstablished
     PassaicEstablished
     SalemEstablished
     SomersetEstablished
     SussexEstablished
     UnionEstablished
     WarrenEstablished
    New York
     AlbanyEstablished
     AlleganyEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     BronxEstablished
     BroomeEstablished
     CattaraugusEstablished
     CayugaEstablishedN-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     ChautauquaEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     ChemungEstablishedN-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     ChenangoEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     ClintonEstablished
     ColumbiaEstablished
     CortlandEstablishedN-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     DelawareEstablished
     DutchessEstablished
     ErieEstablished
     EssexEstablished
     FranklinEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     FultonEstablished
     GeneseeEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     GreeneEstablished
     HamiltonEstablishedN-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     HerkimerEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     JeffersonEstablished
     KingsEstablished
     LewisEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     LivingstonEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     MadisonEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     MonroeEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     MontgomeryEstablished
     NassauEstablished
     New YorkEstablishedN-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     NiagaraEstablishedN-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     OneidaEstablished
     OnondagaEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     OntarioEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     OrangeEstablished
     OrleansReportedN-RM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     OswegoEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     OtsegoEstablished
     PutnamEstablished
     QueensEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     RensselaerEstablished
     RichmondEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     RocklandEstablished
     SaratogaEstablished
     SchenectadyEstablished
     SchoharieEstablished
     SchuylerEstablishedN-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     SenecaEstablishedN-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     St. LawrenceEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     SteubenEstablishedN-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     SuffolkEstablished
     SullivanEstablished
     TiogaEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     TompkinsEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     UlsterEstablished
     WarrenEstablished
     WashingtonEstablished
     WayneEstablishedN-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     WestchesterEstablished
     WyomingEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
     YatesEstablishedR-EM. Prusinski/New York Department of Health, unpublished
    North Carolina
     AlamanceEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     AnsonReported
     BeaufortEstablished
     BertieEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     BladenEstablished
     BrunswickEstablished
     CamdenEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     CarteretEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     CatawbaReported
     ChathamEstablishedR-E(Smith et al. 2010)
     ChowanEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     ColumbusEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     CravenEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     CumberlandEstablished
     CurrituckReported
     DareEstablished
     DuplinEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     DurhamEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     EdgecombeEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     ForsythReportedN-RB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     GatesEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     GranvilleReportedN-RB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished; http://vectormap.nhm. ku.edu/vectormap/
     GreeneEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     GuilfordReportedN-RB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     HalifaxEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     HarnettEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     HaywoodReportedN-RB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     HertfordEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     HokeEstablished
     HydeEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     JohnstonEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     JonesEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     LenoirReported
     MartinEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     MecklenburgReportedN-RB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     MooreReported
     NashEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     New HanoverEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     OnslowEstablished
     OrangeEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     PamlicoEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     PasquotankReportedN-RB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     PenderEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     PerquimansEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     PittReportedN-RB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     RandolphReportedN-Rhttp://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/vectormap/
     RobesonEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     RowanEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     RutherfordReported
     SampsonEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     ScotlandEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     StokesEstablishedN-E(Sakamoto et al. 2014); B. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     SurryReportedN-RB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     TyrrellEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     VanceReportedN-RB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     WakeEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     WarrenEstablishedN-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     WashingtonEstablishedR-EB. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
     WayneEstablishedN-EH. Gaff, unpublished; B. Harrison/NCPHPMc, unpublished
    North Dakota
     BottineauEstablishedN-EM. Feist and J. Vaughan, unpublished
     EddyEstablishedN-E(Russart et al. 2014)
     Grand ForksEstablishedN-E(Russart et al. 2014, Stone et al. 2015)
     PembinaEstablishedN-E(Russart et al. 2014)
     RamseyEstablishedN-E(Russart et al. 2014)
     RansomReportedN-RM. Feist and J. Vaughan, unpublished
     RoletteReportedN-R(Russart et al. 2014)
     SteeleReportedN-R(Russart et al. 2014)
    Ohio
     AdamsEstablishedN-ER. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     AshlandReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     AshtabulaEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     AthensReportedN-R(Wang et al. 2014), http://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     AuglaizeReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     BelmontEstablishedN-ER. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     BrownReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     ButlerReported
     CarrollEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     ClermontReported
     ColumbianaEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     CoshoctonEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     CuyahogaEstablishedN-ER. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     DelawareReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     ErieReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     FairfieldReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     FayetteReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     FranklinReportedN-RR. Gary, unpublished; http://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/vectormap/
     GalliaEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     GeaugaReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     GreeneReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     GuernseyEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     HamiltonEstablishedR-ER. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     HarrisonEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     HighlandReportedN-R(Wang et al. 2014), http://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     HockingEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     HolmesEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     JacksonEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     JeffersonEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     KnoxEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     LakeEstablishedN-ER. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     LawrenceEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     LickingEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     LucasReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     MadisonReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     MahoningReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     MedinaEstablishedN-ER. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     MeigsReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     MonroeEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     MontgomeryReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     MorganEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     MorrowReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     MuskingumEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     NobleEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     OttawaReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     PauldingReportedN-R
     PerryEstablishedN-ER. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     PickawayReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     PikeEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     PortageEstablishedN-ER. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     RichlandEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     RossEstablishedN-E(Wang et al. 2014), R. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     SciotoReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     StarkEstablishedN-ER. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     SummitEstablishedN-ER. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     TrumbullEstablishedN-ER. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     TuscarawasReportedN-R(Wang et al. 2014), http://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     UnionReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     VintonReportedN-R(Wang et al. 2014), http://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     WarrenReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     WashingtonReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
     WayneEstablishedR-ER. Gary/Ohio Department of Health, unpublished
     WilliamsReported
     WoodReportedN-Rhttp://www.odh.ohio.gov/lyme
    Oklahoma
     AdairReported
     AtokaReported
     CaddoReported
     CarterReported
     CherokeeEstablished
     CoalReported
     ComancheReported
     CreekReported
     DelawareReported
     GarfieldReported
     GarvinReported
     HaskellReported
     HughesReported
     JohnstonReported
     LatimerReported
     Le FloreEstablished
     LincolnReported
     LoveReported
     MayesReported
     McClainEstablished
     McCurtainReported
     McIntoshReported
     MurrayReported
     MuskogeeReported
     OklahomaReported
     OkmulgeeReported
     OttawaReported
     PawneeReported
     PayneReported
     PittsburgReported
     PontotocReported
     PottawatomieReported
     PushmatahaReported
     RogersReported
     SeminoleReported
     SequoyahReported
     TulsaReported
     WagonerReported
     WashingtonReported
    Pennsylvania
     AdamsEstablishedR-E(Han et al. 2014, Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     AlleghenyEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     ArmstrongEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     BeaverEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     BedfordEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     BerksEstablished
     BlairEstablished
     BradfordEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     BucksEstablished
     ButlerEstablished
     CambriaEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     CameronEstablished
     CarbonEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     CentreEstablished
     ChesterEstablished
     ClarionEstablished
     ClearfieldEstablished
     ClintonEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     ColumbiaEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     CrawfordEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     CumberlandEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     DauphinEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     DelawareEstablished
     ElkEstablished
     ErieEstablished
     FayetteEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     ForestEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     FranklinEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     FultonEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     GreeneEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     HuntingdonEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     IndianaEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     JeffersonEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     JuniataEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     LackawannaEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     LancasterEstablished
     LawrenceEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     LebanonEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     LehighEstablished
     LuzerneEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     LycomingEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     McKeanEstablished
     MercerEstablished
     MifflinEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     MonroeEstablished
     MontgomeryEstablished
     MontourEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     NorthamptonEstablished
     NorthumberlandEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     PerryEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     PhiladelphiaEstablished
     PikeEstablished
     PotterEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     SchuylkillEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     SnyderEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     SomersetEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     SullivanEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     SusquehannaEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     TiogaEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     UnionEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     VenangoEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     WarrenEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     WashingtonEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     WayneEstablished
     WestmorelandEstablishedR-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     WyomingEstablishedN-E(Hutchinson et al. 2015)
     YorkEstablished
    Rhode Island
     BristolEstablished
     KentEstablished
     NewportEstablished
     ProvidenceEstablished
     WashingtonEstablished
    South Carolina
     AbbevilleReported
     AikenEstablished
     AllendaleReported
     AndersonReported
     BarnwellEstablished
     BeaufortEstablished
     BerkeleyEstablished
     CalhounReportedN-R(Williams et al. 1999)
     CharlestonEstablished
     ChesterEstablished
     ChesterfieldReportedN-R(Williams et al. 1999)
     ColletonReported
     DarlingtonReported
     DorchesterReported
     EdgefieldEstablished
     FairfieldReported
     FlorenceEstablished
     GeorgetownEstablished
     GreenvilleReportedN-R(Williams et al. 1999)
     GreenwoodReported
     HamptonEstablished
     HorryReported
     JasperEstablishedR-EL. Durden, unpublished
     LaurensReported
     McCormickEstablished
     NewberryEstablished
     OrangeburgReported
     PickensReported
     RichlandReportedN-R(Williams et al. 1999)
     SaludaReportedN-R(Williams et al. 1999)
     SpartanburgReported
     SumterReportedN-Rhttp://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/vectormap/
     UnionEstablished
     South Dakota
     BrookingsReported
     CodingtonReported
    Tennessee
     AndersonEstablishedN-E(Rosen et al. 2012)
     BedfordEstablishedR-E(Rosen et al. 2012)
     BledsoeReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     CampbellEstablishedN-E(Rosen et al. 2012)
     ClaiborneReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     ClayReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     CoffeeEstablishedN-EG. Hickling, unpublished
     CumberlandReportedN-R(Harmon et al. 2011, Rosen et al. 2012)
     DavidsonReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     DeKalbEstablishedN-E(Rosen et al. 2012)
     FayetteEstablishedN-E(Rosen et al. 2012, Mays et al. 2014)
     FentressReported
     FranklinEstablishedN-EG. Hickling, unpublished
     GilesReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     GraingerReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     HamiltonEstablishedN-E(Rosen et al. 2012)
     HenryReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     HumphreysReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     JacksonEstablishedN-E(Rosen et al. 2012)
     KnoxEstablishedN-EG. Hickling, unpublished
     LakeReported
     LauderdaleReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     LawrenceEstablishedN-E(Rosen et al. 2012)
     LoudonEstablishedN-E(Rosen et al. 2012)
     MarionEstablishedR-E(Rosen et al. 2012)
     MarshallEstablishedN-E(Rosen et al. 2012)
     MauryReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     MontgomeryReportedN-Rhttp://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/vectormap/
     ObionReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     PickettReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     RheaEstablishedN-E(Rosen et al. 2012)
     RoaneReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     RutherfordReported
     ScottReported
     SequatchieReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     ShelbyEstablished
     StewartReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     SumnerReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     TiptonReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     WarrenReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     WayneReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     WhiteReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
     WilliamsonReportedN-R(Rosen et al. 2012)
    Texas
     AndersonEstablished
     AngelinaEstablished
     AransasEstablished
     AustinReported
     BanderaReported
     BastropReported
     BellEstablished
     BexarEstablished
     BlancoReportedN-RS. Hamer, unpublished
     BowieReported
     BrazoriaEstablished
     BrazosEstablishedR-E(Sanders et al. 2013, Rodriguez et al. 2015)
     CameronReportedN-R(Feria-Arroyo et al. 2014)
     CassEstablished
     CherokeeEstablished
     ColoradoReported
     CoryellReportedN-R(Sanders et al. 2013)
     DallasReported
     EdwardsReported
     Fort BendReported
     FranklinReported
     FreestoneEstablishedN-ES. Hamer, unpublished
     GraysonReported
     GreggReported
     HamiltonReported
     HarrisEstablished
     HarrisonReported
     HaysReported
     HendersonEstablished
     HidalgoReportedN-R(Feria-Arroyo et al. 2014)
     HoustonReported
     HuntReported
     JasperEstablished
     JeffersonReported
     KerrReported
     KlebergReported
     LamarReported
     LampasasReported
     LavacaEstablished
     LeonEstablished
     LibertyReported
     LlanoReported
     MarionEstablished
     MasonReportedN-R(Feria-Arroyo et al. 2014)
     MatagordaReported
     MontgomeryEstablished
     NacogdochesEstablished
     NewtonReported
     Palo PintoReported
     ParkerEstablished
     PolkEstablished
     RealEstablished
     RobertsonReported
     RuskReported
     SabineReported
     San AugustineReported
     ShelbyReported
     SmithEstablished
     SuttonReported
     TarrantReportedN-R(Feria-Arroyo et al. 2014)
     TaylorReported
     TrinityEstablished
     TylerEstablished
     UpshurReported
     UvaldeReported
     VictoriaReported
     WalkerReported
     WallerEstablished
     WashingtonReportedN-RS. Hamer, unpublished
     WoodEstablished
     ZavalaReported
    Vermont
     AddisonEstablishedN-Ehttps://apps.health.vermont.gov/gis/vttracking/ticktracker/2014Summary/
     BenningtonEstablishedR-Ehttps://apps.health.vermont.gov/gis/vttracking/ticktracker/2014Summary/
     CaledoniaEstablishedR-Ehttps://apps.health.vermont.gov/gis/vttracking/ticktracker/2014Summary/
     ChittendenEstablishedR-Ehttps://apps.health.vermont.gov/gis/vttracking/ticktracker/2014Summary/
     FranklinEstablishedN-Ehttps://apps.health.vermont.gov/gis/vttracking/ticktracker/2014Summary/
     Grand IsleEstablishedN-Ehttps://apps.health.vermont.gov/gis/vttracking/ticktracker/2014Summary/
     LamoilleReported
     OrangeEstablishedN-E(Serra et al. 2013)
     OrleansReportedN-Rhttps://apps.health.vermont.gov/gis/vttracking/ticktracker/2014Summary/
     RutlandEstablishedR-Ehttps://apps.health.vermont.gov/gis/vttracking/ticktracker/2014Summary/
     WashingtonEstablishedN-Ehttps://apps.health.vermont.gov/gis/vttracking/ticktracker/2014Summary/
     WindhamEstablishedR-Ehttps://apps.health.vermont.gov/gis/vttracking/ticktracker/2014Summary/
     WindsorEstablished
    Virginia
     AccomackEstablished
     AlbemarleEstablishedN-ED. Gaines, unpublished
     AlleghanyReportedN-RD. Gaines, unpublished
     AppomattoxEstablishedN-ER.J. Brinkerhoff, unpublished
     ArlingtonReportedN-Rhttp://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/vectormap/
     AugustaEstablishedN-ED. Gaines, unpublished
     BathReportedN-RD. Gaines, unpublished
     Bedford CityReportedN-Rhttp://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/vectormap/
     BedfordEstablishedN-EM. Shanks, D. Gaines, unpublished
     BlandEstablishedN-EM. Shanks, D. Gaines, unpublished
     BrunswickReportedN-RD. Gaines, unpublished
     BuckinghamEstablishedN-ED. Gaines, unpublished; R.J. Brinkerhoff, unpublished
     CarolineEstablished
     Charles CityReportedN-RD. Gaines, unpublished; R.J. Brinkerhoff, unpublished
     ChesapeakeEstablished
     ChesterfieldEstablishedN-E(Kelly et al. 2014)
     CraigEstablishedN-EM. Shanks, D. Gaines, unpublished
     CulpeperReportedN-RH. Gaff, unpublished; http://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/ vectormap/
     CumberlandReportedN-RR.J. Brinkerhoff, unpublished
     DinwiddieReportedN-Rhttp://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/vectormap/
     EssexReportedN-RH. Gaff, unpublished
     FairfaxEstablished
     FauquierEstablishedR-ER.J. Brinkerhoff, unpublished
     FloydEstablishedN-ED. Gaines, unpublished
     FluvannaEstablishedN-ER.J. Brinkerhoff, unpublished
     FranklinEstablishedN-EM. Shanks, D. Gaines, unpublished
     FrederickEstablishedN-ED. Gaines, unpublished
     GilesEstablishedN-E(Herrin et al. 2014)
     GloucesterReportedN-RH. Gaff, unpublished; http://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/vectormap/
     GoochlandEstablishedN-E(Kelly et al. 2014)
     GreensvilleReportedN-RH. Gaff, unpublished
     HamptonEstablishedN-EH. Gaff, unpublished
     HanoverReportedN-RR.J. Brinkerhoff, unpublished
     HenricoReportedN-RD. Gaines, unpublished
     Isle of WightEstablishedN-EH. Gaff, unpublished
     James CityEstablishedN-E(Kelly et al. 2014); H. Gaff, unpublished
     King and QueenReportedN-RH. Gaff, unpublished
     King GeorgeEstablishedN-ED. Gaines, unpublished; H. Gaff, unpublished
     LancasterReportedN-RH. Gaff, unpublished
     LoudounEstablishedN-EH. Gaff, unpublished
     LynchburgEstablishedN-ED. Gaines, unpublished
     MecklenburgReportedN-RD. Gaines, unpublished
     MiddlesexEstablishedN-EH. Gaff, unpublished
     MontgomeryEstablishedN-ED. Gaines, unpublished
     NelsonEstablishedN-EKelly et al. 2014
     New KentEstablishedN-ER.J. Brinkerhoff, unpublished
     Newport NewsEstablished
     NorfolkReportedN-RH. Gaff, unpublished
     NorthamptonEstablishedN-E(Kelly et al. 2014); H. Gaff, unpublished
     NorthumberlandReportedN-RH. Gaff, unpublished; http://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/vectormap/
     PortsmouthEstablishedN-EH. Gaff, unpublished
     PowhatanEstablishedN-ER.J. Brinkerhoff, unpublished
     Prince EdwardReportedN-RR.J. Brinkerhoff, unpublished
     Prince GeorgeReported
     Prince WilliamEstablishedN-EH. Gaff, unpublished; http://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/vectormap/
     PulaskiEstablishedN-E(Herrin et al. 2014)
     RappahannockReportedN-Rhttp://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/vectormap/
     RichmondReportedN-RD. Gaines, unpublished; H. Gaff, unpublished
     RoanokeEstablishedN-ED. Gaines, unpublished
     RockbridgeEstablishedN-ED. Gaines, unpublished
     RockinghamReportedN-RD. Gaines, unpublished
     ShenandoahReportedN-RD. Gaines, unpublished
     SouthamptonEstablishedR-EH. Gaff, unpublished
     SpotsylvaniaReportedN-Rhttp://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/vectormap/
     StaffordEstablished
     SuffolkEstablishedN-ED. Gaines, unpublished; H. Gaff, unpublished
     SussexReportedN-RH. Gaff, unpublished
     Virginia BeachEstablished
     WarrenEstablishedN-ED. Gaines, unpublished
     WashingtonReportedN-Rhttp://vectormap.nhm.ku.edu/vectormap/
     WestmorelandEstablishedN-EH. Gaff, unpublished
     YorkEstablished
    West Virginia
     BarbourEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/Zoonosis/Mosquito/Documents/arbovirus/vectorborne-disease-report.pdf#page=3; E. Dotseth, unpublished
     BerkeleyEstablished
     BooneReported
     BraxtonEstablishedN-EE. Dotseth, unpublished
     BrookeEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.mamca.org/2014Meeting/0306_0840_SR_WV.pdf; E. Dotseth, unpublished
     CabellReportedN-Rhttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/zoonosis/documents/wv-zd-summary-2014.pdf
     DoddridgeReportedN-Rhttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/Zoonosis/Mosquito/Documents/arbovirus/vectorborne-disease-report.pdf#page=3
     FayetteReportedN-RE. Dotseth, unpublished
     GilmerEstablishedN-EE. Dotseth, unpublished
     GrantReportedN-Rhttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/Zoonosis/Mosquito/Documents/arbovirus/vectorborne-disease-report.pdf#page=3
     GreenbrierEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.mamca.org/2014Meeting/0306_0840_SR_WV.pdf; E. Dotseth, unpublished
     HampshireReportedN-Rhttp://www.mamca.org/2014Meeting/0306_0840_SR_WV.pdf
     HancockEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/Zoonosis/Tick/documents/tickborne-disease-summary-2013.pdf
     HardyEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/zoonosis/tick/documents/tickborne-disease-summary-2013.pdf; E. Dotseth, unpublished
     HarrisonEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/zoonosis/tick/documents/tickborne-disease-summary-2013.pdf; E. Dotseth, unpublished
     JacksonReportedN-Rhttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/Zoonosis/Mosquito/Documents/arbovirus/vectorborne-disease-report.pdf#page=3
     JeffersonEstablished
     KanawhaEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/Zoonosis/Tick/documents/tickborne-summary-2012.pdf
     LewisEstablishedN-EE. Dotseth & M. Mark-Carew, unpublished
     LincolnReportedN-Rhttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/Zoonosis/Mosquito/Documents/arbovirus/vectorborne-disease-report.pdf#page=3
     LoganReportedN-Rhttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/Zoonosis/Mosquito/Documents/arbovirus/vectorborne-disease-report.pdf#page=3
     MarionEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/zoonosis/tick/documents/tickborne-disease-summary-2013.pdf; E. Dotseth, unpublished
     MarshallReportedN-Rhttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/zoonosis/tick/documents/tickborne-disease-summary-2013.pdf
     MercerEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/Zoonosis/Mosquito/Documents/arbovirus/vectorborne-disease-report.pdf#page=3; E. Dotseth, unpublished
     MineralReportedN-Rhttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/Zoonosis/Mosquito/Documents/arbovirus/vectorborne-disease-report.pdf#page=3
     MonongaliaEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/zoonosis/tick/documents/tickborne-disease-summary-2013.pdf; E. Dotseth, unpublished
     MonroeEstablishedN-EE. Dotseth, unpublished
     MorganReported
     OhioReportedN-RE. Dotseth, unpublished
     PocahontasReportedN-RE. Dotseth, unpublished
     PrestonEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.mamca.org/2014Meeting/0306_0840_SR_WV.pdf; E. Dotseth, unpublished
     PutnamReportedN-Rhttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/zoonosis/documents/wv-zd-summary-2014.pdf
     RaleighEstablishedN-EE. Dotseth, unpublished
     RandolphReportedN-Rhttp://www.mamca.org/2014Meeting/0306_0840_SR_WV.pdf
     RitchieReportedN-RE. Dotseth, unpublished
     SummersEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/zoonosis/tick/documents/tickborne-disease-summary-2013.pdf; E. Dotseth, unpublished
     TaylorEstablishedN-Ehttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/zoonosis/tick/documents/tickborne-disease-summary-2013.pdf; E. Dotseth, unpublished
     TuckerReportedN-Rhttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/Zoonosis/Tick/documents/tickborne-disease-summary-2013.pdf
     TylerReportedN-Rhttp://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/zoonosis/documents/wv-zd-summary-2014.pdf
     UpshurEstablishedN-EE. Dotseth, unpublished
     WetzelEstablishedN-EE. Dotseth, unpublished
     WirtEstablishedN-EE. Dotseth, unpublished
     WoodReportedN-RE. Dotseth, unpublished
    Wisconsin
     AdamsEstablished
     AshlandEstablishedR-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     BarronEstablished
     BayfieldEstablishedN-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     BrownEstablishedN-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     BuffaloEstablishedR-E(Michalski et al. 2006)
     BurnettEstablished
     ChippewaEstablished
     ClarkEstablished
     ColumbiaEstablished
     CrawfordEstablished
     DaneEstablished
     DodgeReportedN-R(Lee et al. 2013)
     DoorEstablishedR-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     DouglasEstablishedN-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished.
     DunnEstablishedN-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     Eau ClaireEstablished
     FlorenceReportedN-Rhttp://labs.russell.wisc.edu/wisconsin-ticks/presence-of-ixodes-scapularis-on-hunter-killed-deer-in-wisconsin-2008-09/
     Fond du LacReportedN-RLee et al. 2013; http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/wisconsin-ticks/presence-of-ixodes-scapularis-on-hunter-killed-deer-in-wisconsin-2008-09/
     ForestEstablishedN-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     GrantEstablished
     GreenEstablished
     Green LakeEstablishedN-E(Michalski et al. 2006)
     IowaEstablished
     JacksonEstablished
     JeffersonEstablishedR-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     JuneauEstablishedN-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     KenoshaReportedN-R(Lee et al. 2013)
     La CrosseEstablished
     LafayetteReported
     LangladeEstablishedN-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     LincolnEstablished
     ManitowocReported
     MarathonEstablished
     MarinetteEstablished
     MenomineeEstablishedN-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     MilwaukeeEstablishedN-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     MonroeEstablished
     OcontoEstablishedN-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     OneidaEstablishedR-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     OutagamieReported
     OzaukeeReportedN-Rhttp://labs.russell.wisc.edu/wisconsin-ticks/presence-of-ixodes-scapularis-on-hunter-killed-deer-in-wisconsin-2008-09/
     PierceReportedN-RS. Paskewitz, unpublished
     PolkReported
     PortageEstablished
     PriceEstablished
     RacineEstablished
     RichlandEstablished
     RockEstablished
     RuskEstablished
     SaukEstablished
     SawyerEstablished
     ShawanoReportedN-R(Lee et al. 2013)
     SheboyganEstablishedR-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     St. CroixEstablishedR-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     TaylorEstablished
     TrempealeauEstablished
     VernonReported
     VilasEstablishedN-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     WalworthEstablishedR-E(Caporale et al. 2005, Lee et al. 2013)
     WashburnEstablished
     WaukeshaEstablishedR-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     WaupacaEstablishedN-ES. Paskewitz, unpublished
     WausharaReported
     WinnebagoReported
     WoodReportedN-RS. Paskewitz, unpublished
    • aEstablished: Six or more ticks or two or more tick life stages; Reported: Fewer than six ticks and one tick life stage only.

    • bN-R, change from No Records to Reported; N-E, change from No Records to Established; R-E, change from Reported to Established.

    • cNCPHPM: North Carolina Public Health Pest Management, terminated in 2011.

    • dSCWDS: Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study.

    • eNational Veterinary Services Laboratories.

  • Table 3.

    Records of I. pacificus by state and county. Fields left blank indicate status was inherited from Dennis et al. (1998)

    State and countyStatus by Aug. 2015aStatus change from Dennis et al. (1998)bSource for change of status from Dennis et al. (1998) survey
    Arizona
     MohaveEstablished
    California
     AlamedaEstablished
     AmadorEstablished
     ButteEstablished
     CalaverasEstablished
     ColusaEstablished
     Contra CostaEstablished
     Del NorteEstablished
     El DoradoEstablished
     FresnoEstablished
     GlennEstablished
     HumboldtEstablished
     ImperialEstablished
     InyoEstablished
     KernEstablished
     KingsEstablished
     LakeEstablished
     LassenEstablished
     Los AngelesEstablished
     MaderaEstablished
     MarinEstablished
     MariposaEstablished
     MendocinoEstablished
     MercedEstablished
     MonoReported
     MontereyEstablished
     NapaEstablished
     NevadaEstablished
     OrangeEstablished
     PlacerEstablished
     PlumasEstablished
     RiversideEstablished
     SacramentoEstablished
     San BenitoEstablished
     San BernardinoEstablished
     San DiegoEstablished
     San FranciscoEstablished
     San JoaquinEstablished
     San Luis ObispoEstablished
     San MateoEstablished
     Santa BarbaraEstablished
     Santa ClaraEstablished
     Santa CruzEstablished
     ShastaEstablished
     SierraEstablished
     SiskiyouEstablished
     SolanoEstablished
     SonomaEstablished
     StanislausEstablished
     SutterEstablished
     TehamaEstablished
     TrinityEstablished
     TulareEstablished
     TuolumneEstablished
     VenturaEstablished
     YoloEstablished
     YubaEstablished
    Nevada
     ClarkReported
     LincolnReported
    Oregon
     BentonEstablished
     ClackamasEstablished
     ClatsopEstablished
     ColumbiaReported
     CoosEstablished
     CurryEstablished
     DouglasEstablished
     Hood RiverEstablished
     JacksonEstablished
     JeffersonReported
     JosephineEstablished
     LaneEstablished
     LincolnEstablished
     LinnEstablished
     MarionEstablished
     MultnomahEstablished
     PolkReported
     ShermanEstablished
     TillamookEstablished
     UmatillaReported
     WascoEstablished
     WashingtonEstablished
    Utah
     BeaverReported
     JuabEstablished
     MillardReported
     PiuteReported
     Salt LakeEstablished
     TooeleEstablishedR-E(Davis et al. 2015)
     UtahEstablished
    WashingtonEstablished
     Washington
     ChelanEstablished
     ClallamEstablishedN-EE. Dykstra, unpublished
     ClarkEstablished
     CowlitzEstablishedR-EE. Dykstra, unpublished
     IslandReported
     JeffersonEstablished
     KingEstablishedR-EE. Dykstra, unpublished
     KitsapEstablishedR-EE. Dykstra, unpublished
     KittitasReportedN-RE. Dykstra, unpublished
     KlickitatEstablished
     LewisEstablished
     MasonEstablished
     OkanoganReportedN-RE. Dykstra, unpublished
     PacificReportedN-RE. Dykstra, unpublished
     PierceEstablished
     San JuanEstablished
     SkagitEstablished
     SkamaniaEstablished
     SnohomishReported
     ThurstonEstablished
     WhatcomEstablished
     YakimaReportedN-RE. Dykstra, unpublished
    • Fields left blank indicate status was inherited from Dennis et al. (1998)

    • aEstablished: Six or more ticks or two or more tick life stages; Reported: Fewer than six ticks and one tick life stage only.

    • bN-R, change from No Records to Reported; N-E, change from No Records to Established; R-E, change from Reported to Established.